Spanish rule in the Americas ended in 1898 when they lost their final colonies to the United States following the Spanish-American War. They had no word meaning “inhabitant of the Western Hemisphere,” and most of them seem not to have adopted any equivalent even after centuries of contact. These traditions reflect the distinctive mixtures of Native American, African, and European influences that have shifted throughout the region over time. Imperial prohibitions proved unable to stop the flow of potentially subversive English, French, and North American works into the colonies of Latin America. The majority of Latin America gained independence from Spain between 1810 and 1825, with Brazil gaining independence from Portugal in 1825. In Santiago, Caracas, Bogotá, and other cities, by contrast, it was Creoles who controlled the provisional juntas. As a result, the indigenous peoples, once in contact, were very vulnerable to the outsiders. Ege & Makhijani. From the start Buenos Aires’ intention of bringing all the former viceregal territories under its control set off waves of discord in the outlying provinces. Having had a taste of freedom during their political and economic isolation from the mother country, Spanish Americans did not easily consent to a reduction of their power and autonomy. More generally, Creoles reacted angrily against the crown’s preference for peninsulars in administrative positions and its declining support of the caste system and the Creoles’ privileged status within it. A History of Modern Latin America: 1800 to the Present examines the diverse and interlocking experiences of people of indigenous, African, and European backgrounds from the onset of independence until today.. Transforming these early initiatives into a break with Spanish control required tremendous sacrifice. Over the next decade and a half, Spanish Americans had to defend with arms their movement toward independence. Despite the traumatic experience, Latin music is one of the positive outcomes that came from that process. Even since independence, many of the various nations have experienced similar trends, and they have some awareness of a common heritage. The earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Here are some of the more noteworthy men who have held dictatorial powers in their home nations. Between 1808 and 1826 all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. Other expeditions took the cause to Upper Peru, the region that would become Bolivia. That concession divided and weakened loyalist opposition to independence in the Americas. Omissions? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Fully informed by the latest scholarship, this survey spans six centuries and covers twenty countries. History of Latin America, history of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century. Although retired from active teaching for some years, Keen continued to research, write, and lecture until his death in late 2002. Independence in the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, however, encountered grave difficulties in the years after 1810. In 1810 a Cortes (Parliament) emerged in Cádiz to represent both Spain and Spanish America. Mexican movies were exported and exhibited in all Latin America and Europe. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, Montevideo and its surroundings became the separate Estado Oriental (“Eastern State,” later Uruguay). Slavery in Latin America began in the precolonial period, when indigenous civilizations including the Maya and Aztec enslaved captives taken in war. Paraguay resisted Buenos Aires’ military and set out on a path of relative isolation from the outside world. Unparalleled in scope, attentive to the paradoxes of Latin American reality, and known for its fine-grained interpretation, it is now available for the first time in English. Discover the best Latin American History in Best Sellers. Central authority proved unstable in the capital city of Buenos Aires. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro with some 15,000 officials, nobles, and other members of his court, John transformed the Brazilian colony into the administrative centre of his empire. Though the conditions of pre-Columbian America and 15th-century Iberia are beyond the scope of Latin American history proper, they must be given consideration in that connection. Creole participants in conspiracies against Portugal and Spain at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century showed familiarity with such European Enlightenment thinkers as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The ancestors of today's American Indigenous peoples … Not only did the geography of precontact America persist, but both the new arrivals and the indigenous inhabitants long retained their respective general characteristics, and it was the fit between them that determined many aspects of Latin American evolution. The struggles that produced independence in the south began even before Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal and Spain. The inhabitants of America all lacked immunities to diseases common in Europe and Africa. Latin music is the result of a complex social and historical process that took place in the Americas after the arrival of Columbus. From the south proceeded another powerful force, this one directed by the more circumspect José de San Martín. From the north came the movement led most famously by Simón Bolívar, a dynamic figure known as the Liberator. Part history, part polemic, this is a foundational text in understanding the place that Latin America plays in the world today. Latin American music, musical traditions of Mexico, Central America, and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese. Latin American Cultural History is a course designed to introduce some of Latin America's most prevalent themes that express everyday life, common customs, major festivals, and national expressions of pleasure and mourning. Final destruction of loyalist resistance in the highlands required the entrance of northern armies. Illustrates and analyzes the major and minor events that shape history, the triumphs and defeats, and the everyday lives of people of varied classes and racial and ethnic backgrounds The inhabitants’ social and cultural characteristics differ according to the constitution of the occupants before the Iberian conquest, the timing and nature of European occupation, and their varying material endowments and economic roles. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Did the Incan people rule over ancient Mexico? BREAK IT ALL: The History of Rock in Latin America 2020 TV-MA 1 Season Music & Concert Documentaries Soda Stereo, Café Tacvba, Aterciopelados and others figure in this 50-year history of Latin American rock through dictatorships, disasters and dissent. Latin American nations do not usually loom in world history as the source of great traditions. When the Spanish crown entered into an alliance with France in 1795, it set off a series of developments that opened up economic and political distance between the Iberian countries and their American colonies. For more-detailed coverage of the area prior to European contact, see pre-Columbian civilizations. After difficult conquests of their home regions, the two movements spread the cause of independence through other territories, finally meeting on the central Pacific coast. The best-selling text for introductory Latin American history courses, A HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA encompasses political and diplomatic theory, class structure and economic organization, culture and religion, and the environment. By 1825, Mexico, Central America, and South America were free, soon to be followed by Brazil. With these figures of legitimate authority in his power, the French ruler tried to shatter Spanish independence. The indigenous world and the word “Indian”, Conquest society in the central mainland areas, Institutional, legal, and intellectual developments, Spanish America in the age of the Bourbons, The north and the culmination of independence, Political models and the search for authority, Political and economic transitions, 1850–70, The United States and Latin America in the Cold War era, Latin America at the end of the 20th century. The reforms imposed by the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century provoked great instability in the relations between the rulers and their colonial subjects in the Americas. From the time of Columbus and the late 15th century forward, the Spaniards and Portuguese called the peoples of the Americas “Indians”—that is, inhabitants of India. Its task, however, was formidable. Having benefited from colonial monopolies and fearful of the kind of social violence that the late 18th-century revolt had threatened, many Peruvian Creoles were not anxious to break with Spain. Spanish Americans now found themselves able to trade legally with other colonies, as well as with any neutral countries such as the United States. Of Spain's two remaining colonies, Cuba gained its independence in 1898, at which time Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War. Consequently, the forces under San Martín managed only a shaky hold on Lima and the coast. The movements that liberated Spanish South America arose from opposite ends of the continent. Exploring Latin America: Fact or Fiction? The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 19th century. In 1928 Herbert Hoover makes a goodwill visit to Latin America. Parts of this chronology are reprinted with permission from Dr. Richard W. Slatta's Ancient and Colonial Latin American and US-Latin American Relations courses.. Other sources. Rejecting compromise and reform, Ferdinand resorted to military force to bring wayward Spanish-American regions back into the empire as colonies. Distinct interests and long-standing resentment of the viceregal capital led different regions in the south to pursue separate destinies. This region deserves to be defined on its own terms, beyond dismissive stereotypes, rather than being known simply as the less-well known neighbour of the USA. In 1820 troops waiting in Cádiz to be sent as part of the crown’s military campaigns revolted, forcing Ferdinand to agree to a series of liberal measures. Latin seems to suggest an equal importance of the French and Italian contributions, which is far from being the case. After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. When the Spanish colonial officials proved ineffective against the invasion, a volunteer militia of Creoles and peninsulars organized resistance and pushed the British out. There is, then, at times, a need for a common term, and if one realizes its limitations, “Indian” may do as well as another. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. There is also a separate article Latin American literature. All shared an isolation from the great mass of humanity inhabiting Eurasia and Africa, who were in some way in contact with one another. Most inhabitants speak Spanish or Portuguese, but there are other languages in this region like Indigenous languages, French, English and Dutch. Leaders in Latin America tended to shy away from the more socially radical European doctrines. Foreign Affairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. 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