Models of inclusive education 1. (2000), Stanovich, & Jordon, (2002) and Moberg, Zumberg, and Reinmaa (1997) stated that educator beliefs, perceptions and training should be viewed as potentially influential antecedents to their commitment toward implementing a successful inclusion policy. Welch, M. (2000). These findings support the theoretical framework of the study that positive contact leads to favorable attitudes toward inclusion in a learning situation (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Pacific Grove, California: Brooks & Cole Publishing. One student with vision impairment had this to say; “the teacher told me to sit in front so that I can see properly what is written on the board” Teachers say I disturb so I should sit in front” said another student with hearing problems. Allport (1954) stated that not all types of contact between diverse groups lead to acceptance of each other. Such a conclusion is supported in the current study where the students requiring major and minor curriculum changes were also less favored in company with those requiring Braille and those students using sign language. The effect is greatly enhanced if this contact is sanctioned by institutional supports” (Allport, 1954. p. 281). Research shows that, school is a social system with both formal and informal socialisation processes, and without formal socialisation happening among individuals and groups learning is not enhanced. They also believe that well controlled contact between children from different ethnic groups in school can have positive effects on social interactions among groups. Two set of questions, one to the teachers and one to the students were used to collect data. The utility of Allport’s conditions of intergroup contact for predicting perceptions of improved racial attitudes and beliefs. The general lack of knowledge of inclusion on the part of school authorities (principals) and the lack of regular in-service training sessions for teachers (Agbenyega & Deku, 2011; Ofori-Addo, et al., 1999) put a question mark on the level of educators’ knowledge of the inclusion education initiative. (1997). It is recommended by this study that awareness-raising about disability is a good step towards an equal position of students with disabilities in the schools in particular and people with disabilities in the society in general. These challenges include lack of professionalism and attitudes of teachers, which have resulted in separation and segregation of students with disabilities. Reading: Massachusetts. Thus, facilitating intergroup harmony is important should be the responsibility of teachers). Asked about students playing and learning activities, one of the disabled students said they feel good during playtime there they play well with other students. State of inclusive education in Ghana Unpublished manuscript, Education Division, Ghana Education Service Volume 1: Policies, targets and strategies Apr 2003 20-20 Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., Romchin, E. M., Eiss, N., Imbeau, M., & Landrum, M. (1997). Hillsdale, New Jersey. UNESCO. In this regard, a teacher commented: Mainstream schools, probably are not able to cater for students with extreme disabilities. It presents the essential features of inclusive education systems and recognis es the need to take action to make inclusive education a reality for all learners. In other words, are schools restructured, re-oriented and re-organised to create school norms /climates conducive for inclusive education? However, an examination of literature and practice shows that the term has come to mean different things to different people. In this regard teachers are able to experiment with different techniques and strategies to ensure that all students perform. A cultural perspective and the second wave of educational reform. Qualitative data was analysed using observations, conversational and textual analysis of data. This statement by the teacher indicates that teachers' and principals` knowledge about and attitudes towards inclusive education are related. Anthony J. As one of the teachers put; How can we teach a child with language problems? Political Research Quarterly, 53 (2). & Desai, I. Rigidity and curricular inflexibility is a result of teachers` attitude and poor teacher knowledge (Avoke & Avoke, 2004; Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009; Ocloo & Subbey, 2008; Yarboi-Tetteh, 2008; Gadagbui, 2008). Rupa (P10), a teacher attached to a mainstream government school in the Gampaha district Although, other background variables such as class-size also played a role. Inclusive Education rolled-out throughout Ghana. However, it was found in the study that gender did not have any significant role on teachers` attitude in inclusion. Full Inclusion B. Format), Agbenyega, J. These findings raise concerns regarding the implementation of the Inclusive Education Program in Ghana, Anthony (2011), Ofori-Addo (1994) and O’Toole, Hofslett, Bupuru, Ofori-Addo, & Kotoku (1996). Inclusive Education: Approaches, Scope and Content • Ghana’s Inclusive Education focuses on children with special needs. Anthony, J. on inclusive education Sensitize all staff Engage community & media Build capacity of support services Train & deploy more SEN resource teachers PO4: Ensure sustainability of Inclusive Education Implementation. United States: Prentice Hall, Inc. McClenahan, C., Cairns, E., Seamus, D. & Valerie, M. (1996). The data was analysed qualitatively and results tabulated with percentages. I try to give them the time they need, but sometimes I stop them. Exceptional Children, 63 (3), 405-418. Format), Citation-(BibTeX Removing barriers to participation in learning for all learners is at the core of inclusive education systems (UNESCO, 2005). (2008). Towards the development of inclusive education in one district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Another student said she was advised to stop school and concentrate on finding work because she was not coping with school work. Retrieved from: http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/EdStats/GHAgmrpap09.pdf (Retrieved on 2011-05-20). Thus the proximal cause of behavior is the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior. The implementation of public policy coupled with teacher attitudes toward persons with disabilities in Ghana has been saddled with problems. Further, the study is hoped to make a significant contribution to an understanding of inclusive education practices in Ghanaian schools by identifying what needs to be done to ensure effective implementation of Inclusive Education. However, Allport (1954) concluded that there is no formula to establish successful contact. Measuring attitudes toward inclusive education.Psychology in the Schools, 29, 10-22. In line with attitude formation theories and results from literature (Cornoldi et al., 1998; Deaux et al, 1993; Praisner, 2003) the results of this study is similar to those of Anthony, (2011), Avramidis, et al. Promoting positive attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. Ofori-Addo, L. (1994). The absence of gender differences in this study is perhaps a result of similarities in the country`s traditional beliefs and culture. & Jordan, A. The Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Intergroup Contact underpin this study. Journal of Research in Special and Inclusive Education, 7, (2), 104-113. Teachers are more negative to include students with speech disorders and students who need professional skills to read and write In this regard this study confirms the works of (Avramids, et al 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008; Stanovich, & Jordon, 2002). The study will be useful in providing an understanding of how each of the study variables impact on inclusive school practices in Ghana. implementation of inclusion makes for the starting grounds to create an inclusive society, wherein changes in schools are a priority. Exceptional Children, 67, 115-135. Avoke, M. K. & Avoke, S. K. (2004). Finally, teachers appear to believe that they have had no choice about and no part in the process of inclusion in Ghanaian schools. Cross-cultural perspective. & Sridhar, D. (2003). 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). Students` responses are summarised in Table 1 below. 1. How do Ghanaian teachers implement Inclusive Education? Experience teaching students with disabilities, disabled students in the classroom and knowledge of special needs education were found to be affective of attitudes and knowledge and in teachers` implementation of inclusion. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136 (5), 549-558. (1954). (Kuyini & Desai 2009) study of attitudes toward including students with disabilities into mainstream schools in Australia found that, teacher attitudes had increased in a positive way. Teachers in the study view inclusive education as difficult, most of them agree that students with disabilities are placed into mainstream schools. 10 (2011), pp. According to one of the interviewees, students with severe disabilities would pose problem to effective teaching because they take a lot of time and that is unfair for non-disable students. B. According to Avramidis et al (2000) and Cook (2001), although the roles practice, teacher knowledge and attitudes are considered as crucial to successful inclusion, most mainstream principals' and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion were often negative. Inclusion, Rehabilitation and Transition Services in Special Education. 2.3.3 Ghana’s experience with inclusive education 33 2.3.3.1 Disability in Ghana 33 2.3.4 Special needs and inclusion in Tanzania 34 2.3.4.1 Legislation and policy 35 . Studies by Wilczenski (1992, 1995), in the USA and Muthukrishna (2000) in South Africa also found that teachers were more willing to include students with social deficits than any other type of disability such as language disabilities. I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Stanovich, P.J. Earlier, Wilczenski (1995) in Kuyini & Desai (2007) concluded that attitude towards the inclusion of students with different types of disabilities was influenced by the amount of extra work or accommodation teachers have to make for the included students. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. 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